Valerio Castronovo,

La logique du conglomĂ©rat : l’État banquier et entrepreneur en Italie

Depuis sa crĂ©ation en 1933 par le rĂ©gime fasciste, l’Institut pour la Reconstruction Industrielle (IRI) est l’outil privilĂ©giĂ© de l’intervention publique dans les domaines bancaire et industriel. En organisant la sĂ©paration des banques et des grands groupes industriels, il a permis Ă  l’Italie de limiter les consĂ©quences Ă©conomiques de la crise des annĂ©es 1930. De nouvelles conditions de financement des entreprises contrĂ´lĂ©es ont Ă©tĂ© mises en place. On pouvait alors parler d’Ă©conomie mixte. Après 1945, l’IRI a survĂ©cu Ă  la chute politique de ses fondateurs. Il est devenu l’instrument de la reconstruction et de la modernisation de l’Ă©conomie. Toutefois, la multiplication d’objectifs contradictoires au sein des politiques gouvernementales a rĂ©duit l’efficacitĂ© de ses interventions. La crise des annĂ©es 1970-1980 et les restructurations industrielles ont repositionnĂ© l’IRI au centre des politiques publiques. Ses missions de contrĂ´le se sont depuis lors dĂ©veloppĂ©es au dĂ©triment de ses interventions directes.

Since its creation by the fascist rĂ©gime in 1933, the Institute for Industrial Reconstruction (IRI) has been the major tool for public intervention in banking and industry. Because it organized the separation of banks and of large-scale industrial corporations, it enabled Italy to limit the economic consequences of the Depression of the 1930s. New conditions for the financing of companies controlled by IRI were devised and put into practice. The bases for a mixed economy were thus established. After 1945, the IRI was able to survive in spite of the defeat of the fascist rĂ©gime which founded it. It became the key instrument for the rebuilding and the modernization of the economy. However, the multiplication of contradictory objectives within the framework of governmental politics reduced the efficiency of the IRI’s interventions. The world economic crisis of the 1970s and 1980s and the restructuring of industrial firms have brought the IRI back to the centre of the State’s industrial policy. Its tasks of control have been developed at the expense of its direct interventions.

Share on FacebookTweet about this on TwitterShare on Google+